"The ability to harness naturally occurring gases for our own purposes is just another step in man's evolution towards a safer and cleaner environment."
President: RAW Biochem
Ultra-fine bubbles (UFB) FAQ
What is a UFB?
Ultra Fine Bubbles are nano-size gas bubbles which own unique properties in water.
How can I see a UFB?
UFB are not visible and can be detected with a green light laser
(wave length = 532 nm)
How is a UFB measured?
The Malvern NanoSight instrument is able to detect UFB in the water and to measure particle size and concentration.
The Nanosight uses Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for individual UFB observation and diffusion measure.
Why is size important?
With greater levels of oxygen or gas in the bubble, it becomes more buoyant and will quickly surface from the fluid to escape back into the atmosphere.
Smaller bubbles will remain suspended in the fluid for longer periods of time because the water pressure will keep it suspended.
Large interfacial area concentration for constant gas volumetric ratio (void fraction)
The larger interfacial area for smaller bubbles are 80.000 times greater.
Bubble inside pressure is higher than environment due to mechanical force balance required to maintain stable curvature of a bubble.
Solubility follows Henry’s Law: Solubility is proportional to gas pressure.
Smaller bubbles are much easier to solve into water.
Electrically charged UFB's
Zeta potential of UFB ranges roughly from -10mV to -70mV under normal conditions.
Charged bubbles show either repulsion or attractive force like Coulomb's force when two bubbles or foreign particles approach to each other.
What is Surface Adsorption?
Organic substrate (surfactant) is adsorbed at the interface with hydro-phobic group towards the gas side.
Example of Oil particles (+) absorption by UFB (-) in Oil-Water Emulsion
Free Radical Formations
Formation of free radicals has been experimentally confirmed when they collapse.
High temperature and pressure fields formed at bubble collapse induce
decomposition of water molecules.
How Long Will They Last?
UFB can survive up to a few months.
There are more than several models reported to explain stabilization mechanism of UFB
Ultra-fine Bubble Generator
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